Questions NOT Answered

I have been getting a lot of emails asking me to evaluate their modern Japanese coins. You are asking the wrong person, as I know nothing about post-Meiji coins. So, if your emails went unanswered, that is the reason.

I would be happy to tell you something about your pre-Meiji cash coins (no gold or silver), but I will not place a value on them. I am here to assist you in collecting Japanese cash coins. I am not a price guide.


Anyone for Money Tree?

This item is being offered in Japan for "buy now" of about $250.  There are 15 coins on this one. Of course, none of this type of money tree is genuine. Some are old and some are modern, but they were all made to trinkets and for display.


Okinawa Hatome-Sen

One of our readers, Aussie, writes:

I noticed with interest the photo of Okinawan coins on your blog (2009/12/01). I haven't seen a copy of that photo in over a decade. I believe that I own some, if not most of the hatome sen pictured (the actual coins in the picture). Who is Neal? I am trying to remember the name of the gentleman who took the picture, (I can remember his face) but unfortunately don't remember his name. He was in the USAF when I met him on Okinawa and I know he retired in the early 1990s. I still collect Okinawan material when I find it, and searching for items is how I came across the photo. I would like to network with other collectors of Okinawa material. I look forward to your reply.

Ed: That was a long time ago, and I don't remember who sent me those photos. I, too, was stationed in Okinawa (1975-76). Went to a coin shop in Naha a few times, but I had more fun bar hopping back then. Since I spoke the language, I guess I had more fun than most GIs.


eBay Bidders Watch Out!

 The seller illustrates a photo of Tenpo Tsuho. I was the only who placed a bid on it. By the way, the starting bid was $33, which is way too high for a Tenpo. I think I was the only one who knew this coin was a seed coin (see photo). When I got the coin, what I got was a very common coin and not the only that was illustrated. I contacted the seller and was told he used a "stock photo"!! And that I got the one in the same grade!! Since when do rare coin sellers use "stock photos"?  Or send out something totally different just because it is in similar condition? Just imagine bidding $1000 for a rare variety but getting a common variety worth $20.

NOTE: We just settled this case. I got a full refund, including postage that I paid. Plus, he sent me extra to have the coin sent back to him.


Questions NOT Answered

I am always happy to answer questions regarding pre-Meiji CASH coins (copper/iron), as long as they involve just a few coins. I have been getting a lot of questions lately about post-Meiji struck coinage, pre-Meiji silver and gold coinage, medals and the like. This blog is for cash coins, nothing else. In addition, I get questions involving translation of coins, tokens, medals and other objects. If someone wants to hire me as a translator, that's fine. If someone wants to hire me as an appraiser of coins, I can do that too. So, please limit your questions to Japanese cash coins! For that I could do for fun. Please do not send me dozens of photos for attibution. That is beyond fun!


Letter from Reader

Doug writes:

I was a subscriber to your news letter back in 1984.

I still have most of your works. It looks like you used the Cover Page from the 9th issue of your newsletter as a pattern for your book. I am a generation your senior and it is now time to catalog some 2000 Chinese and Japanese coins so that I can pass them on to my kids. Can you recommend a Software Program that I can use with ease? Is there a Scanner/ Translator, Japanese to English Program available?

RMJ writes:

First, we thank Doug for writing us. Second, I have no idea what a "Scanner/Translator" is, or what "Japanese to English Program" is. Doug mentions "Software Program" so I would imagine he is looking for some sort of program for cataloging coins. Even today, I would have to say the best way of keeping records is in a notebook. I still use one of those green-colored notebooks used for accounting. I use very fine pencil (Japanese, of course) to catalog.

I also use Excel for keeping records and PowerPoint for arranging photos. I guess there are programs on the market for cataloging coins, but I know nothing about them. Another very good way of keeping records is writing info on paper 2x2 envelopes (not the staple kind).


Kanei Tsuho Bun-Sen Part One Introduction

There are six recognized obverse varieties for this issue, not counting the Shimaya Bun Sen (covered separately in the near future).

Plate-1, TL, shows a Seiji 正字. It means “properly written characters.” What does that mean, properly written compared to what? I believe a collector who decided to separate these coins in the 19th century came across this particular variety more often than de did others. Therefore, he imagined this coin to be the norm. Out of 1000 coins, he found 550 of this particular variety. In other words, it is a common variety. If it is common, it must be the most proper variety.

Plate-1, TR, shows a Chuji 中字. The old man notices something peculiar amongst his 550 Seiji coins, not all of them are exactly alike. About 50 out of those 550 coins differ ever so slightly. The differences are very minute. He wants to confuse any would-be collectors, and just for the heck of it, he names this variety Chuji, or medium characters. His wish came true, as this variety is difficult to separate from Seiji. Many collectors are confused with this variety today, and are often misattributed.

Plate-1, BL, shows a Saiji 細字. This means “thinly written characters.” If you are like me, you will be asking, “What is so thin about those characters?” The characters are just as thick as the two varieties above! That old man must be laughing his head off in his grave. He got us all confused.

Plate-1, BR, shows a Shukuji 宿字. The old man must have been feeling good from drinking SAKE this day, as the nickname attached to this variety is easy to follow. Shukuji means “compressed characters.” By having the above plate for comparison, the differences are easy to note. However, if you had this variety in its raw state, determining its variety is not as easy.

Plate-2, L, shows a Fukaji (Shinji) 深字. Based on this illustration, its meaning is clear. It has deep characters. This variety should be easy to spot. Caveat: 9 out of 10 do not have deep characters but are still called Fukaji. The old man is working hard to confuse us again. If the characters are not deep, this variety looks just like Seiji, Chuji, and Saiji.

Plate-2, R, shows a super Saiji called Senji 繊字. This one used to be called just a plain old Saiji. However, some call this a super Saiji, or Senji, today. If you ask me, we should be calling this Saiji, and the other Saiji (listed above) that does not even have thin characters something else.

So, there you have the basic six varieties of Bun-Sen. Incidentally, all of the coins illustrated above are supposedly seed coins. Seed coins of this series are a subjective issue. We will look into it soon. This part one is only an introduction to this series. We will cover how to differentiate the varieties the next time around.

Illegal Tenpo Tsuho Mints

Because Tenpo Tsuho carried a high value, every daimyo wanted to cast this coinage in their provinces. Profits were guaranteed! Some minters created their own seed coins from scratch, but most of them used the regular government coins in circulation: the three varieties of Honza. For that reason, we have many varieties today that resemble authorized issues.

Some of their initial trials ended up in failure. What they did not realize was that metal shrinks when cast in mold. A 49mm Tenpo would come out measuring 47mm. In addition, molten metal poured into oval shaped sand mold has a tendency to “round” itself while cooling. In other words, there is a natural, lengthwise pressure applied within the mold that tries to take a round form. As a result, the finished coin loses a bit of lengthwise measurement, while gaining its width slightly. We need to remember that these illegal mints were trying to pass their coinage as legal, government coins. Size mattered. Looks mattered.

Illegal mints get smarter. They are now producing coins of correct size and weight, more-or-less. Many mints use a wrap-around now. This thing called “wrap-around” is a ring that is a few millimeter wide. Tenpo Tsuho is popped into this ring. This simple process added that needed, extra measurement. Coins cast from this process become seed coins. However, these coins had very wide rims as a result. The rims have to be narrowed, so they file and smooth out the inner oval rim. This is why some varieties of Tenpo coins have more space between the rim and the characters, for both obverse and reverse. Such varieties are called “sekkaku.” It means the characters look as though if they are cluttered around the square hole. Of course, this is not the case, but they appear that way.

Another type of ring is a sort that not only adds measurements to the edge but adds a bit of thickness to the rims as well. Just imagine it with aluminum foil. Wrap the foil around the edge of a coin and then fold over the excess over the rim. By using this procedure, a bit of extra weight can be added to the finished coin. Coins cast from this method have the rims slightly taller than the characters, or the characters slightly lower than the rims. In other words, the characters seem as though they are sunk into the field. We call this variety “gakurin.” See photo above of Tosa Gakurin coin. If you are familiar with Shin Kanei Tsuho, there is a well-known “gakurin” called Osaka Nanba Gakurin (see photo above… left, circulation coin; right, seed coin). This Kanei coin was made from another process and is illustrated here to show another example of the meaning of “gakurin.”

The texture of Tenpo Tsuho is of another study. Field appearance alone could determine the origin of coin. However, this is subjective at best, and other matters need consideration. Early coins from Honza appear as though they were cast from molds made of plaster of Paris or dental plaster. The field texture is smooth. Fine sand they used was only available from one place, Boushu, which is present day southern coast of Chiba. This fine sand was protected by the central government and was valuable as gold was.

Illegal mints did not have access to this sand. As a result, the sand they used was low quality. Molds made from ordinary sand cast coins of pebbly, sandy appearance, and of course, coarser the sand, rougher the fields. During the late production period of Honza coins, Boushu sand is exhausted, and the mint is forced to use lower quality sand. The quality of cast coins suffers. Sometimes these lower quality government coins are mistaken for illegal mint coins. Color of copper, differences in the way the characters are written, weights and measures, and the general appearance must be considered for proper attribution.


Kameido Kanei-Tsuho BUN-SEN 亀戸 寛永通宝 文銭 1668
In May we will talk about those coins commonly known as “Edo Mintmark” coins of 1668 CE. I bet many of you believe you got this series down pat and are able to differentiate between Seiji 正字, Chuji中字, Saiji 細字, Shinji (Fukaji) 深字 and Shukuji 縮字. Actually, this series is much tougher than people realize. In fact, if you thought MA-TO-TSU was difficult, BUN-SEN could be a nightmare. If you are a masochist, enjoy self-inflicted pain, horror awaits you in May. We call it “House of Bun-Sen.”

New Variety?

One of our readers, Bogomil, believes this rubbing is a new variety.
He says the obverse is just like the regular Bun-sen. This one looks like just a defect in the casting to me.

He follows by writing: As for me it doesn't seems to be a casting error. For:
1) The character 文 was crossed out not occasionaly, but with some sense;
2) There were two similar coins;
3) There were comments in soviet literature about crossed out 文, but without photos.

AND I say: First, this horizontal line is way too long. Second, it is way too low to have been a horizontal stroke of the character BUN.


My "How to take Takuhon (Rubbings of Cash Coins)" Video on Youtube
Not possible to do under 2 minutes. It was a challenge! Click the links below.

Let's Attribute Shin Kanei Tsuho

Shin Kanei Tsuho Ma-To-Tsu 新寛永通宝 マ頭通

I am expanding my blog into sections, as google only allows so much on one page nowadays. It gets a bit confusing for me, but all you have to do is just click the link. If you are reading this, you made the correct click.

Today I would like to discuss those coins called "Ma-To-Tsu." This is the type that has the top of written with instead of the usual made in 1726 and 1736 at Musashi and Yamashiro provinces. If you know something about this series of coins, I am sure you will agree with me when I say these are real @#%&* to attribute. Let's change that.

Japanese descriptive writing is quite confusing. Worse yet, they do not tell us where to start. So in many cases, we start from figure 1 and continue all the way to figure 250 or whatever, trying to find a variety that matches. By then our eyes would be so tired every coin looks the same. With that effort, we are using the process of elimination. That is good, and that is what we should do. But, there must be better ways of doing it.

Let's say you have 100 loose unattributed Kanei Tsuho with "Ma-To-Tsu." Let's get them separated into two groups first. Look at the character EI . The two major varieties within this type is how the character EI is written: centered and not centered (see photos). If the vertical line of the character is centered with the square hole, we call it Tai-Ei 退永. If the vertical line of the character is to the left of the center we call it Shin-Ei 進永. There are more centered ones than there are off-centered ones. So far ok? But things get trickier from here somewhat, as there is a variety called Tai-Ei-Sho-Tsu. (I just added a real nice Tai-Ei-Sho-Tsu Seed Coin above.) This variety is like one of those "is it?" or "ain't it?" kind, as it does not fit Tai-Ei or Shin-Ei exactly. It is more centered than it is off-centered. Will talk about it more in part 2.

Part Two of Shin-Kanei-Tsuho


This part two will be a mini-course on the subject. For most of you, things can get quite confusing. Attributing Japanese cash coins is a tricky thing. That is why nobody writes about it in English.

Separating the two varieties of 1726 Yamashiro no Kuni Kyoto Shichijou Mint was not tough, was it? SHIN-EI and TAI-EI are the two major varieties of this series. There is another key variety from this mint called TAIEI-SHOTSU. These three coins are the major grouping from this mint.

This TAIEI-SHOTSU (see photo above of this variety in seed) resembles more SHINEI than TAIEI, as the vertical stroke of EI is to the left of the square hole’s center. After all, that’s how we attributed the two earlier varieties. But wait! Let’s look at the meaning of the two Japanese words. SHIN 進, alone, is read SUSUMU, meaning to move forward. TAI 退, alone, is read SHIRIZOKU, meaning to fall back. In other words, an old man with eagle eye that came up with the description, TAIEI-SHOTSU, was referring to the position of the vertical stroke of 永 as a whole in this case, rather than just its top. If you look at永, it leans left, making it appear as though it is off-centered. However, in reality it is more centered than it is off-centered.

TAIEI-SHOTSU should have the character TSU 通 written smaller than the regular TAIEI. After all, that is what SHOTSU stands for, small Tsu. The problem is the difference is ultra minute. It is like trying to separate dark grain of sand from light ones, and you gotta a whole tablespoon full of them! So, do not even bother looking at通. Instead, look at the top of HO 寶. The crown, or the horizontal line on top, of this character on this variety is real close to being even with the corner of the square rim (see above photo: left is TAIEI-SHOTSU). Incidentally, the coin on the right used to compare is SHIN-EI. This TAIEI-SHOTSU is R-9, which seems too conservative to me. You should be able to attribute three varieties from Yamashiro no Kuni Kyoto Shichijou Mint now. These three coins measure between 24.2 – 24.4mm on the average.

Next time we will talk about those coins that resemble the three coins we just covered. Next chapter will be the coins from Yamashiro no Kuni Toba Yoko Oji Mint.

Part Three of Shin-Kanei-Tsuho


This third installment will be short and sweet. We will talk about those coins from Yamashiro no Kuni Toba Yoko Oji Mint, better known as simply Yoko-Oji-Sen 横大路銭. There are three varieties from this mint: SHIN-EI, TAI-EI and TAIEI-SHOTSU. Sound familiar? We just covered those three varieties from Kyoto Shichijo Mint. So, this chapter should be a snap!

One good thing about these three varieties is that they are exact copies of Shichijo mint coins, as far as how their characters are written. Remember this: the color of Shichijo mint coins are normally reddish-brown and appear soft due to a bit of lead content. On the other hand, the three coins from Yoko-Oji Mint appear “hard” with coloration varying from slight whitish tint to those of blackish tint. In addition, the planchets (this term usually reserved for struck coinage but…) are smaller compared to Shichijo coins. If you suspect you have these varieties, use a caliper and measure them. If they are not reddish-brown and measure under 23.9mm, you are in luck, as these coins are scarcer than Shichijo coinage.

See photo above. The coin on the left is Yoko-Oji measuring 23.81mm. The coin on the right is Shichijo measuring 24.45mm. Note the color differences of the two coins.

Next time we will talk about how to spot scarce varieties of Ma-To-Tsu in a snap, among others.

Part Four of Shin Kanei Tsuho Ma-To-Tsu Coins

We have one more installation after this part four, and we will be done with this series of coins. We will help you spot scarcer varieties within this series today. These coins are all from YOKO-OJI Mint. You do not need to learn anything new here. However, you must at least be able to identify the three major varieties of SHIN-EI, TAI-EI, and TAI-EI-SHO-TSU. After all, this series of coins is mostly made up of varieties that are based on those three coins.

Look at the photos. Do you spot anything different with these four coins? Note the character KAN 寛. On the top left photo, the horizontal protrusion just above its left leg is completely shaved off. We call this ZEN-KAKKYO. If this happens with SHIN-EI, it is called SHIN-EI-ZEN-KAKKYO. If the host coin is TAI-EI, it is called TAI-EI—ZEN-KAKKYO. If the host coin is TAI-EI-SHO-TSU, it is called TAI-EI-SHO-TSU-ZEN-KAKKYO. Get the drift? These coins are worth $5-$20 depending on the variety and condition.

The top right photo shows a variety that has gone through a Mohawk haircut. There is a bit of that horizontal stroke remaining. We call this HAN-KAKKYO. HAN means half. Just like the above, there are three varieties of this HAN-KAKKYO, and they are so named according to their host coin. These coins are worth $5-$15 depending on the condition.

The bottom left photo shows an example without any shaving. I should have used either a SHIN-EI or TAI-EI as an example, instead of this Edo-Fukagawa coin. But this coin will get my message across.

The bottom right example is a peculiar variety. It has that character stroke curved upward and called I-SO-KAN. It translates to “different nailmark Kan.” Again, there are three sub-varieties of this variety. These coins are difficult to find and command $30-50 or more depending on condition.

There you have part four. Our final installment will be on coins from Musashi-no-Kuni Edo-Fukagawa-Juman-Tsubo 武蔵の国江戸深川十万坪, Yamashiro-no-Kuni Fushimi山城の国伏見 and Sagami-no-Kuni Fujisawa 相模の国藤沢.
Final Installment on MA-TO-TSU Kanei Tsuho

Today we will talk about those coins from Musashi-no-Kuni Edo-Fukagawa-Juman-Tsubo 武蔵の国江戸深川十万坪, Yamashiro-no-Kuni Fushimi 山城の国伏見 and Sagami-no-Kuni Fujisawa 相模の国藤沢.

Juman-Tsubo coins can be quickly differentiated from the three basic varieties of Kyoto-Shichijo coins by comparing the size of square holes. Juman-Tsubo coins have slightly smaller square holes. In addition, the planchets are smaller than Kyoto-Shichijo coins.

Top left is called Ko-Moku-Kan (J60). Note the crowns of KAN and HO. They are slanted upward to right, making those two characters appear as though they are leaning left. The right leg of KAN goes past the corner of square hole. Top right is Kyu-Moku-Kan (J60A). Like the above variety, the right leg of KAN goes past the corner of square rim. Compared to above, the vertical stroke of EI is more centered on the square hole. The crown of HO is straight. The crown of KAN has only a slight slant. These two varieties are a bit scarce.

Bottom left is called Ko-Kan (J61). All characters are slightly smaller compared to above coins, especially the HO. The right leg of KAN is even with the corner of square hole. KAN is slender and tall. Bottom right is called KATSU-EN (J62). For its size, the rim is wide. Right leg of KAN goes past the corner of square rim. HO is much smaller compared to Ko-Moku-Kan and Kyu-Moku-Kan. Vertical stroke of EI is centered with square hole. These two varieties are common.

There is a variety called Sh0-Moku-Ho, which looks almost identical to KATSU-EN. The only difference is the box of HO being smaller by a fraction of a millimeter. This is plain ridiculous and going too far (my opinion)!

Now we come to FUJISAWA-SEN (J69). This is one of my favorite coins, as it is cute. There is only one variety from this mint, making this coin a type coin rather than a variety. All characters are small. Right leg of KAN goes past the corner of square rim. Top of TSU マhas a wide open mouth. Vertical stroke of EI is to the left of the center. This is a scarce little coin.

Finally, we come to those coins of FUSHIMI. Because our intention here is to acquaint you with this series of MA-TO-TSU, we will not cover every variety that is cataloged in Japan. From this mint, we have a variety called JANOME, snake eye, (J68). The above photo was taken from the internet. Note the very wide reverse rim. This is a very scarce variety. There is a variety that was made in the likeness of FUSHIMI coin, and it is called FUSHIMI-DE (J70). The photo above is that of a seed from the internet. Note the wide reverse rim and the clean cut characters. This is a popular scarce coin as well.

There you have it! MA-TO-TSU coins are a bit tricky to attribute. But with information provided here, you should be able to do a good job attributing these coins. It takes time and good eyes. If you want a few coins from this series, see my page on “Japanese cash coins for sale.” I will be listing a few pieces there.


Nandemo Kanteidan 開運なんでも鑑定団 Chuzan Tsuho 中山通寶

There is a fun Japanese TV show about antiques appraisals called, “Nandemo Kanteidan” 開運なんでも鑑定団.
Has anyone watched it before? I tried searching for it on and but nothing there. The only place I can watch some of it is on Veoh. But here is a sample from youtube:


Gotta Have Supplies 101

First, why do we keep using inches, quarts, and bushels? What the heck is a bushel anyways? Do we still live in Paleolithic time? The only thing we got right was the coinage, where money is based on metric system. That was decided over 200 years ago. If everything were measured that way, it would make many things much simpler. I don’t know why we still measure in fractions. Where exact measurements are needed, 1/16” just does not cut it. By using metric, we can divide an inch into 25.4 parts. That alone improves the accuracy by over 50%.

I am sure we all owned a caliper once. In order to measure something, we had to do some calculation, which was totally out of touch I thought. Why even go through that extra step? That was when I found this ingenious gadget (see photo on right). I got this in 1985 from a Japanese Kanei Tsuho specialist. This is basically a magnified measuring device that measures up to 28mm, with an accuracy of 0.2mm. That is an accuracy rate of 1/127 of an inch if my math is correct. Because this device was made specifically for measuring Kanei Tsuho (one and four mon coins), it does not work for Tenpo Tsuho.

There is a very useful and accurate digital caliper around these days. One can buy it for a couple of bucks plus shipping on eBay. You should buy one. However, because I cannot measure diagonally with it, I still use my vintage gadget for measuring Kanei Tsuho. This digital caliper is great for measuring other coins though.

Years ago, a digital scale for weighing small items would have cost several hundred dollars. Today one can buy one for several dollars (see photo on left). This is a super item for any coin collector. You need one. In addition, I recently bought a digital postal scale. It came with a battery and an AC plug-in. Again, this sort would have set me back several hundred dollars in the old days. I got one on eBay for one penny, plus shipping of course. My problem now is what do I do with the two Ohaus scales I bought 25-30 years ago, one a single beam, the other a double-pan. Also, I have one of those metal scales for figuring out postal rates. I believe this dinosaur set me back over $100 in them days. On top of that, I have a Japanese word processor that I paid $700 about 15 years ago. I only used it a few times. Am I able to sell any of these dinosaurs anywhere?


Akita and Tosa Tenpo Tsuho

The two coins illustrated here are known as Gaku-Rin. There are a number of mints that produced this, almost, exact type of varieties. Color identification, the field texture, and how the characters are written are used to attribute the coins. Those very minor character differences that play a role in proper identification are scrutinized. In other words, it's a son of a bitch process! That is the mildest way of saying what I really wanted to say.

The red copper issue here is from Akita mint. This color is fantastic and unquestionable. It is of copper mined from Kagoyama, Akita. It is believed to be an R-3 (R-10 being common and R-1 being rare). Because all of the Gaku-Rin varieties are cast using Honza Kokaku as a model (more about the process in a week or so), the characters have that look of being squashed and wide. This is not from wear. They are attributes of this type of variety. However, this is not to say that all recasts using Honza coins have the above attributes. We only refer to Gaku-Rin type. With this Akita issue, the oval rim is rounded, not squared.

Today many Tenpo coins are being re-evaluated. Because this is not science, those coins that used to be called Tosa, for one, are no longer considered Tosa in JNDA catalog, and are simply placed into "unknown southern manufacturer" category. The only reason for Tosa attribution in the past was based on one collector living in that area who was in possession of quite a few previously unknown varieties. Collectors figured they must be from the Tosa mint. That was many years ago. Having said all that, rarity scale still remains the same.

Another coin we illustrate here is ex-Tosa coin called "Tosa Gakurin." The basic model of this coin is, of course, Honza Kokaku. Note the bottom character on the reverse. Its right hand corner is pointed. There are varieties from other mints that look quite similar to this coin, but that corner would be rounded. This is a good point to remember. However, that is not a rule! This type of varieties could come from Akita, Aizu, and Mito as well. With this particular variety illustrated, the characters are squashed flat and wide, not unlike the Akita coin above. This is not from wear, as this coin is close to being in mint state. The sand texture is attractive, and this one has particularly strong sandy texture. This texture, too, comes in a variety of strength. As with most other varieties, this variety is known with several sub-varieties. The illustrated one rates R-7 to R-8.

I provide an useful chart below for cross-referencing Shin Kanei Tsuho. The first number is from Attribution Guide to Shin Kanei Tsuho by Jones (1984), (none left for sale); the second number is from Guide to the Copper Cash Coinage of Japan by Jones (2007), available on this site.

1 - 199, 4 - 200, 5 - 201, 11 - 202, 20 - 203, 24 - 204, 25 - 205, 28 - 206,31 - 207, 33 - 208, 37 - 209, 39 - 201, 42 - 211, 43 - 212, 44 - 213, 48 - 214,53 - 215, 54 - 216, 57 - 217, 60 - 218, 68 - 219, 71 - 220, 72 - 221, 73 - 222,74 - 223, 75 - 224, 81 - 225, 83 - 226, 85 - 227, 89 - 228, 90 - 229, 91 - 230,95 - 231, 97 - 232100 - 233, 103 - 234, 104 - 235, 105 - 236, 109 - 237, 110 - 238, 116 - 239,117 - 240, 118 - 241, 119 - 242, 121 - 244, 124 - 243, 126 - 245, 128 - 246,129 - 247, 130 - 248, 131 - 249, 132 - 250, 133 - 251, 134 - 252, 135 - 253,136 - 254, 142 - 255, 143 - 256, 146 - 257, 147 - 258150 - 259, 151 - 259, 153 - 260, 156 - 261, 157 - 262, 158 - 263, 159 - 264, 163 - 265, 165 - 266, 166 - 267, 168 - 268, 169 - 269, 171 - 270, 172 - 271, 175 - 272, 178 - 273, 179 - 274, 180 - 275, 181 - 276, 182 - 278, 183 - 277, 184 - 279, 185 - 280, 186 - 281, 188 - 282, 189 - 283, 190 - 283, 193 - 284, 195 - 285, 196 - 286, 197 - 287, 199 - 291200 - 292, 201 - 293, 203 - 294, 205 - 295, 210 - 296, 212 - 297, 216 - 298, 217 - 303, 218 - 299, 219 - 300, 220 - 301, 221 - 302, 222 - 304, 223 - 305,224 - 306, 225 - 307, 229 - 308, 230 - 309, 232 - 310, 234 - 311, 235 - 312, 236 - 313, 240 - 314, 243 - 315, 244 - 316, 249 - 288, 250 - 289, 251 - 290252 - 290, 253 - 320, 254 - 321

Errata: I note errors in Cash Coinage. From time to time, I will list them through a listing such as this. If you own the work, correct the text as we go. If you spot other errors, should be quite a few, let me know.P109, #204, should read Saiji Bun Mu Hai, instead of Saiji Hai Mu Ha.P112. #265, illustrates the character Kan ? but should be Ho ?.